Roofing, Siding, Windows & Gutters

Glossary of Terms


Angled Fasteners
Roofing nails and staples driven into decks at angles not parallel to the deck.

Apron Flashing
Metal flashing used at chimney fronts.

Asphalt Concrete Primer
Asphalt based primer used to prepare concrete and metal for asphalt sealant.

Bubbles or pimples in roofing materials. Usually moisture related. In shingles blisters are caused by either moisture under the material or moisture trapped inside the material.

When a wrinkle or ripple affects shingles or their underlayments.

Closed Cut Valley
A shingle valley installation method where one roof plane’s shingles completely cover the other’s. The top layer is cut to match the valley lines.

A peaked water diverter installed behind chimneys and other large roof projections. Effectively diverts water around projections.

When shingles are improperly installed over an existing roof or are over-exposed, they may form a curl or cup. May also be due to a manufacturing defect.

The substrate over which roofing is applied. Usually plywood, wood boards, or planks.

Deck Armor
Premium breathable roof deck protection. It provides a critical extra layer of protection between your shingles and your roof deck — to help prevent wind-driven rain (or water from other sources) from infiltrating under your shingles and causing damage to your roof structure or to the inside of your home.

A raised roof extending out of a larger roof plane.

Drip Edge
An installed lip that keeps shingles up off the deck at edges, and extends shingles out over eaves and gutters, and prevents.

The roof edge from the fascia to the structure’s outside wall. In general terms, the first three feet across a roof is termed the eave.

The area on any roofing material that is left exposed to the elements.

Fiberglass Mat
Fibers condensed into strong, resilient mats for use in roofing materials.

Metal pan extending up or down a roof slope around flashing pieces. Usually at chimneys and plumbing vents.

Materials used to waterproof a roof around any projections.

Flashing Cement
Sealant designed for use around flashing areas, typically thicker than plastic cement.

Crushed rock that is coated with a ceramic coating and fired, used as top surface on shingles.

The method to assure sealing of shingles on very steep slopes, in high wind areas, and when installing in cold weather.

High Nailing
When shingles are nailed or fastened above the manufacturer’s specified nail location.

Hip Roof
A roof with four roof planes coming together at a peak and four separate hip legs.

Ice Dam
When a snow load melts on a roof and re-freezes at the eave areas. Ice dams force water to “back-up” under shingles and cause leakage.

“L” Flashing
Continuous metal flashing consisting of several feet of metal. Used at horizontal walls, bent to resemble an “L”.

Laminated Shingles
Shingles made from two separate pieces that are laminated together. Such as GAFMC Timberline®Series, Country Mansion® and Grand Sequoia®Shingles. Also called dimensional shingles and architectural shingles.

The area where roll roofing or rolled underlayments overlap one another during application (see also side laps and end laps).

Low Slopes
Roof pitches less than 4/12 are considered low sloped roofs. Special installation practices must be used on roofs sloped 2/12-4/12. Shingles can not be installed at slopes less than 2/12.

A roof design with a nearly vertical roof plane that ties into a roof plane of less slope at its peak.

The general term for the base material of shingles and certain rolled products.

Modified bitumen
Rolled roofing membrane with polymer modified asphalt and either polyester or fiberglass reinforcement.

Mixture of sand, mortar, limestone and water used in bonding a chimney’s bricks together.

Nail Guide Line
Painted line on laminated shingles, to aid in the proper placement of fasteners.

Installing a second layer of shingles aligning courses with the original roof to avoid shingle cupping.

The term used for fasteners driven through roofing material with too much force, breaking the material.

Installing shingle courses higher than their intended exposure.

Method of installing shingles in a straight up the roof manner.

Rake Edge
The vertical edge of gable style roof planes.

Roof Louvers
Rooftop rectangular shaped roof vents. Also called box vents, mushroom vents, airhawks, soldier vents.

Roof Plane
A roofing area defined by having four separate edges. One side of a gable, hip or mansard roof.

Sealant installed on shingles. After installation, heat and sun will activate sealant to seal the shingles to each other.

The non exposed area on rolled roofing. Area without granules. Designed for nail placement and sealant.

Metal flashing pieces installed at sidewalls and chimneys for weatherproofing.

White frame gutter guard system


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